The Victorian era is without a doubt, the most influenced, and influential eras of antique and estate jewelry. As with most estate jewelry, the era is defined by the British monarch, in this case, Alexandrina Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, as well as the Empress of India, years 1837-1901. There are 3 time periods within this era. First, the early, Romanitc period, which is soaked in traditions, natural motifs in gold and silver, clear stones only being worn during the day and colored gems by night. The second being the Grand or Mourning period, which coincides with the death of Queen Victoria's husband, Prince Albert the concort, who died in December of 1861 from typhoid fever, later assumed to be mis-diagnosed and in reality some sort of progressive cancer. Victoria was devastated by this loss, even with the rumors of his affair with Irish actress Nellie Clifden. The period of Victoria's mourning included large, dark, somber, yet dramatic jewelry, with a lot of black onyx, jet, amethyst, garnet and golds. This lasted until 1880's, when the aesthetic period of jewelry began. The Late Victorians utilized more complex and feminine motifs, returning to the natural, including many floral and celestial designs, with more decadent stones, such as sapphire, ruby, zircon, and of course diamonds, lasting until the turn of the century. The Victorian era of jewelry includes many movements found around the world, including revivals such as the Etruscan and Egyptian as well as the Art Nouveau and Arts and Crafts design movements which lead into the beginning of the twentieth century.